Publications

Journal Articles

2019

M. Hohl; S. Remm; H. A. Eskandarian; M. Dal Molin; F. M. Arnold et al. : Increased drug permeability of a stiffened mycobacterial outer membrane in cells lacking MFS transporter Rv1410 and lipoprotein LprG; Molecular Microbiology. 2019-05-01. DOI : 10.1111/mmi.14220.
A. P. Nievergelt; C. M. Kammer; C. Brillard; E. E. Kurisinkal; M. Bastings et al. : Large‐Range HS‐AFM Imaging of DNA Self‐Assembly through In Situ Data‐Driven Control; Small Methods. 2019. DOI : 10.1002/smtd.201900031.

2018

Z. Tasdemir; O. Peric; D. Sacchetto; G. E. Fantner; Y. Leblebici et al. : Monolithic Fabrication of Silicon Nanowires Bridging Thick Silicon Structures; Ieee Transactions On Nanotechnology. 2018-11-01. DOI : 10.1109/TNANO.2018.2868712.
A. Nievergelt; C. Brillard; H. Eskandarian; J. McKinney; G. Fantner : Photothermal Off-Resonance Tapping for Rapid and Gentle Atomic Force Imaging of Live Cells; International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2018-09-30. DOI : 10.3390/ijms19102984.
A. P. Nievergelt; N. Banterle; S. H. Andany; P. Gönczy; G. E. Fantner : High-speed photothermal off-resonance atomic force microscopy reveals assembly routes of centriolar scaffold protein SAS-6; Nature Nanotechnology. 2018-08-13. DOI : 10.1038/s41565-018-0149-4.
S. Biswas; S. Leitao; Q. Theillaud; B. W. Erickson; G. E. Fantner : Reducing uncertainties in energy dissipation measurements in atomic force spectroscopy of molecular networks and cell-adhesion studies; Scientific Reports. 2018-06-20. DOI : 10.1038/s41598-018-26979-0.
R. Vijayan; S. Essig; S. De Wolf; B. Ramanathan; P. Loper et al. : Hole-Collection Mechanism in Passivating Metal-Oxide Contacts on Si Solar Cells: Insights From Numerical Simulations; IEEE JOURNAL OF PHOTOVOLTAICS. 2018. DOI : 10.1109/JPHOTOV.2018.2796131.
D. Djekic; G. Fantner; K. Lips; M. Ortmanns; J. Anders : A 0.1% THD, 1-M Omega to 1-G Omega Tunable, Temperature-Compensated Transimpedance Amplifier Using a Multi-Element Pseudo-Resistor; IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS. 2018. DOI : 10.1109/JSSC.2018.2820701.

2017

T. Larsen; J. C. Doll; F. Loizeau; N. Hosseini; A. W. Peng et al. : Rise time reduction of thermal actuators operated in air and water through optimized pre-shaped open-loop driving; Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering. 2017. DOI : 10.1088/1361-6439/aa5fd2.
J. Kreith; T. Strunz; E. J. Fantner; G. E. Fantner; M. J. Cordill : A versatile atomic force microscope integrated with a scanning electron microscope; Review of Scientific Instruments. 2017. DOI : 10.1063/1.4983317.
H. A. Eskandarian; P. D. Odermatt; J. X. Y. Ven; M. T. M. Hannebelle; A. P. Nievergelt et al. : Division site selection linked to inherited cell surface wave troughs in mycobacteria; Nature Microbiology. 2017. DOI : 10.1038/nmicrobiol.2017.94.
O. Peric; M. Hannebelle; J. D. Adams; G. E. Fantner : Microfluidic bacterial traps for simultaneous fluorescence and atomic force microscopy; Nano Research. 2017. DOI : 10.1007/s12274-017-1604-5.
M. Dukic; V. Todorov; S. Andany; A. P. Nievergelt; C. Yang et al. : Digitally controlled analog proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller for high-speed scanning probe microscopy; Review of Scientific Instruments. 2017. DOI : 10.1063/1.5010181.
L. C. Bryan; D. R. Weilandt; A. L. Bachmann; S. Kilic; C. C. Lechner et al. : Single-molecule kinetic analysis of HP1-chromatin binding reveals a dynamic network of histone modification and DNA interactions; Nucleic Acids Research. 2017. DOI : 10.1093/nar/gkx697.
C. Yang; R. Winkler; M. Dukic; J. Zhao; H. Plank et al. : Probing the Morphology and Evolving Dynamics of 3D Printed Nanostructures Using High-Speed Atomic Force Microscopy; Acs Applied Materials & Interfaces. 2017. DOI : 10.1021/acsami.7b07762.

2016

N. Hosseini; A. P. Nievergelt; J. D. Adams; V. T. Stavrov; G. E. Fantner : A monolithic MEMS position sensor for closed-loop high-speed atomic force microscopy; Nanotechnology. 2016. DOI : 10.1088/0957-4484/27/13/135705.
M. Dukic; M. Winhold; C. H. Schwalb; J. D. Adams; V. Stavrov et al. : Direct-write nanoscale printing of nanogranular tunnelling strain sensors for sub-micrometre cantilevers; Nature Communications. 2016. DOI : 10.1038/ncomms12487.
C. Yang; J. Yan; M. Dukic; N. Hosseini; J. Zhao et al. : Design of a high-bandwidth tripod scanner for high speed atomic force microscopy; Scanning. 2016. DOI : 10.1002/sca.21338.
C. S. Nowell; P. D. Odermatt; L. Azzolin; S. Hohnel; E. F. Wagner et al. : Chronic inflammation imposes aberrant cell fate in regenerating epithelia through mechanotransduction; Nature Cell Biology. 2016. DOI : 10.1038/ncb3290.
J. Adams; B. Erickson; J. Grossenbacher; J. Brugger; A. P. Nievergelt et al. : Harnessing the damping properties of materials for high-speed atomic force microscopy; Nature Nanotechnology. 2016. DOI : 10.1038/NNANO.2015.254.

2015

M. Dukic; J. D. Adams; G. E. Fantner : Piezoresistive AFM cantilevers surpassing standard optical beam deflection in low noise topography imaging; Scientific Reports. 2015. DOI : 10.1038/srep16393.
A. P. Nievergelt; B. W. Erickson; N. Hosseini; J. D. Adams; G. E. Fantner : Studying biological membranes with extended range high-speed atomic force microscopy; Scientific Reports. 2015. DOI : 10.1038/srep11987.
P. D. Odermatt; A. Shivanandan; H. Deschout; R. Jankele; A. P. Nievergelt et al. : High-Resolution Correlative Microscopy: Bridging the Gap between Single Molecule Localization Microscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy; Nano Letters. 2015. DOI : 10.1021/acs.nanolett.5b00572.
M. Ricci; J. J. Segura; B. Erickson; G. Fantner; F. Stellacci et al. : Growth and dissolution of calcite in the presence of adsorbed stearic acid; Langmuir. 2015. DOI : 10.1021/acs.langmuir.5b01732.
A. Béduer; T. Braschler; O. Peric; G. E. Fantner; S. Mosser et al. : A Compressible Scaffold for Minimally Invasive Delivery of Large Intact Neuronal Networks; Advanced Healthcare Materials. 2015. DOI : 10.1002/adhm.201400250.

2014

A. P. Nievergelt; J. D. Adams; P. D. Odermatt; G. E. Fantner : High-frequency multimodal atomic force microscopy; Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology. 2014. DOI : 10.3762/bjnano.5.255.
J. Adams; A. Nievergelt; B. Erickson; C. Yang; M. Dukic et al. : High-speed imaging upgrade for a standard sample scanning atomic force microscope using small cantilevers; Review of Scientific Instruments. 2014. DOI : 10.1063/1.4895460.
B. Schlecker; M. Dukic; B. Erickson; M. Ortmanns; G. Fantner et al. : Single-Cycle-PLL Detection for Real-Time FM-AFM Applications; IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON BIOMEDICAL CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS. 2014. DOI : 10.1109/TBCAS.2014.2307696.

2012

I. Bozchalooi; K. Youcef-Toumi; D. Burns; G. Fantner : A vibration suppression approach to high-speed atomic force microscopy; Proceedings of the American Control Conference. 2012.
B. W. Erickson; S. Coquoz; J. D. Adams; D. J. Burns; G. E. Fantner : Large-scale analysis of high-speed atomic force microscopy data sets using adaptive image processing; Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology. 2012. DOI : 10.3762/bjnano.3.84.
M. Huth; F. Porrati; C. Schwalb; M. Winhold; R. Sachser et al. : Focused electron beam induced deposition: A perspective; Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology. 2012. DOI : 10.3762/bjnano.3.70.

2011

I. S. Bozchalooi; K. Youcef-Toumi; D. J. Burns; G. E. Fantner : Compensator design for improved counterbalancing in high speed atomic force microscopy; Review of Scientific Instruments. 2011. DOI : 10.1063/1.3663070.
D. J. Burns; K. Youcef-Toumi; G. E. Fantner : Indirect identification and compensation of lateral scanner resonances in atomic force microscopes; Nanotechnology. 2011. DOI : 10.1088/0957-4484/22/31/315701.

2010

J. M. Wallace; B. Erickson; C. M. Les; B. G. Orr; M. M. B. Holl : Distribution of type I collagen morphologies in bone: Relation to estrogen depletion; Bone. 2010. DOI : 10.1016/j.bone.2009.11.020.
J. M. Wallace; Q. S. Chen; M. Fang; B. Erickson; B. G. Orr et al. : Type I Collagen Exists as a Distribution of Nanoscale Morphologies in Teeth, Bones, and Tendons; Langmuir. 2010. DOI : 10.1021/la100006a.
Y. S. Nam; T. Shin; H. Park; A. P. Magyar; K. Choi et al. : Virus-Templated Assembly of Porphyrins into Light-Harvesting Nanoantennae; Journal of the American Chemical Society. 2010. DOI : 10.1021/ja908812b.
J. Mukherjee; B. Erickson; S. Maldonado : Physicochemical and Electrochemical Properties of Etched GaP(111)A and GaP(111)B Surfaces; Journal of the Electrochemical Society. 2010. DOI : 10.1149/1.3314305.
G. E. Fantner; R. J. Barbero; D. S. Gray; A. M. Belcher : Kinetics of antimicrobial peptide activity measured on individual bacterial cells using high-speed atomic force microscopy; Nature Nanotechnology. 2010. DOI : 10.1038/nnano.2010.29.

2009

P. J. Thurner; B. Erickson; P. Turner; R. Jungmann; J. Lelujian et al. : The effect of NaF in vitro on the mechanical and material properties of trabecular and cortical bone; Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.). 2009. DOI : 10.1002/adma.200801204.
P. Hansma; P. Turner; B. Drake; E. Yurtsev; A. Proctor et al. : The bone diagnostic instrument II: Indentation distance increase (vol 79, 064303, 2008); Review of Scientific Instruments. 2009. DOI : 10.1063/1.3142471.
G. E. Fantner; W. Schumann; R. J. Barbero; A. Deutschinger; V. Todorov et al. : Use of self-actuating and self-sensing cantilevers for imaging biological samples in fluid; Nanotechnology. 2009. DOI : 10.1088/0957-4484/20/43/434003.
G. E. Fantner; D. J. Burns; A. M. Belcher; I. W. Rangelow; K. Youcef-Toumi : DMCMN: In Depth Characterization and Control of AFM Cantilevers With Integrated Sensing and Actuation; Journal of Dynamic Systems Measurement and Control-Transactions of the Asme. 2009. DOI : 10.1115/1.4000378.

2008

B. Zappone; P. J. Thurner; J. Adams; G. E. Fantner; P. K. Hansma : Effect of Ca2+ ions on the adhesion and mechanical properties of adsorbed layers of human osteopontin; Biophysical Journal. 2008. DOI : 10.1529/biophysj.108.135889.
C. V. Kelly; M. G. Liroff; P. R. Leroueil; D. G. Mullen; B. W. Erickson et al. : POLY 458-Poly(amidoamine) dendrimer binding, pore formation, and supramolecular structure with phospholipids; Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society. 2008.
M. B. Holl; J. M. Chen; B. W. Erickson; C. V. Kelly; P. R. Leroueil et al. : COLL 291-Polymer nanoparticle interactions with cell membranes; Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society. 2008.
P. Hansma; P. Turner; B. Drake; E. Yurtsev; A. Proctor et al. : The bone diagnostic instrument II: Indentation distance increase; Review of Scientific Instruments. 2008. DOI : 10.1063/1.2937199.
B. Erickson; S. C. DiMaggio; D. G. Mullen; C. V. Kelly; P. R. Leroueil et al. : Interactions of poly(amidoamine) dendrimers with Survanta lung surfactant: The importance of lipid domains; Langmuir. 2008. DOI : 10.1021/La801497d.
J. Adams; G. E. Fantner; L. W. Fisher; P. K. Hansma : Molecular energy dissipation in nanoscale networks of dentin matrix protein 1 is strongly dependent on ion valence; Nanotechnology. 2008. DOI : 10.1088/0957-4484/19/38/384008.

2007

J. C. Weaver; J. Aizenberg; G. E. Fantner; D. Kisailus; A. Woesz et al. : Hierarchical assembly of the siliceous skeletal lattice of the hexactinellid sponge Euplectella aspergillum; Journal of Structural Biology. 2007. DOI : 10.1016/j.jsb.2006.10.027.
P. J. Thurner; B. Erickson; R. Jungmann; Z. Schriock; J. C. Weaver et al. : High-speed photography of compressed human trabecular bone correlates whitening to microscopic damage; Engineering Fracture Mechanics. 2007. DOI : 10.1016/j.engfracmech.2006.05.024.
C. Sun; G. E. Fantner; J. Adams; P. K. Hansma; J. H. Waite : The role of calcium and magnesium in the concrete tubes of the sandcastle worm; Journal of Experimental Biology. 2007. DOI : 10.1242/jeb.02759.
J. H. Kindt; P. J. Thurner; M. E. Lauer; B. L. Bosma; G. Schitter et al. : In situ observation of fluoride-ion-induced hydroxyapatite-collagen detachment on bone fracture surfaces by atomic force microscopy; Nanotechnology. 2007. DOI : 10.1088/0957-4484/18/13/135102.
N. Holten-Andersen; G. E. Fantner; S. Hohlbauch; J. H. Waite; F. W. Zok : Protective coatings on extensible biofibres; Nature Materials. 2007. DOI : 10.1038/nmat1956.
G. E. Fantner; J. Adams; P. Turner; P. J. Thurner; L. W. Fisher et al. : Nanoscale ion mediated networks in bone: Osteopontin can repeatedly dissipate large amounts of energy; Nano Letters. 2007. DOI : 10.1021/nl0712769.

2006

P. J. Thurner; B. Erickson; Z. Schriock; J. Langan; J. Scott et al. : High-speed photography of the development of microdamage in trabecular bone during compression; Journal of Materials Research. 2006. DOI : 10.1557/jmr.2006.0139.
P. K. Hansma; P. J. Turner; G. E. Fantner : Bone diagnostic instrument; Review of Scientific Instruments. 2006. DOI : 10.1063/1.2221506.
P. K. Hansma; G. Schitter; G. E. Fantner; C. Prater : Applied physics - High-speed atomic force microscopy; Science. 2006. DOI : 10.1126/science.1133497.
G. E. Fantner; G. Schitter; J. H. Kindt; T. Ivanov; K. Ivanova et al. : Components for high speed atomic force microscopy; Ultramicroscopy. 2006. DOI : 10.1016/j.ultramic.2006.01.015.
G. E. Fantner; O. Rabinovych; G. Schitter; P. Thurner; J. H. Kindt et al. : Hierarchical interconnections in the nano-composite material bone: Fibrillar cross-links resist fracture on several length scales; Composites Science and Technology. 2006. DOI : 10.1016/j.compscitech.2005.10.005.
G. E. Fantner; E. Oroudjev; G. Schitter; L. S. Golde; P. Thurner et al. : Sacrificial bonds and hidden length: Unraveling molecular mesostructures in tough materials; Biophysical Journal. 2006. DOI : 10.1529/biophysj.105.069344.

2005

P. J. Thurner; B. Erickson; Z. Schriock; J. Langan; J. Scott et al. : High-speed photography of human trabecular bone during compression; Structure and Mechanical Behavior of Biological Materials. 2005.
P. J. Thumer; R. Muller; J. H. Kindt; G. Schitter; G. E. Fantner et al. : Novel techniques for high-resolution functional imaging of teabecular bone; Medical Imaging 2005: Physiology, Function, and Structure From Medical Images, Pts 1 and 2. 2005. DOI : 10.1117/12.595799.
J. H. Kindt; G. E. Fantner; P. J. Thurner; G. Schitter; P. K. Hansma : A new technique for imaging mineralized fibrils on bovine trabecular bone fracture surfaces by atomic force microscopy; Structure and Mechanical Behavior of Biological Materials. 2005.
G. E. Fantner; P. Hegarty; J. H. Kindt; G. Schitter; G. A. G. Cidade et al. : Data acquisition system for high speed atomic force microscopy; Review of Scientific Instruments. 2005. DOI : 10.1063/1.1850651.
G. E. Fantner; T. Hassenkam; J. H. Kindt; J. C. Weaver; H. Birkedal et al. : Sacrificial bonds and hidden length dissipate energy as mineralized fibrils separate during bone fracture; Nature Materials. 2005. DOI : 10.1038/nmat1428.

2004

J. H. Kindt; G. E. Fantner; J. B. Thompson; P. K. Hansma : Automated wafer-scale fabrication of electron beam deposited tips for atomic force microscopes using pattern recognition; Nanotechnology. 2004. DOI : 10.1088/0957-4484/15/9/005.
J. H. Kindt; G. E. Fantner; J. A. Cutroni; P. K. Hansma : Rigid design of fast scanning probe microscopes using finite element analysis; Ultramicroscopy. 2004. DOI : 10.1016/j.ultramic.2003.11.009.
T. Hassenkam; G. E. Fantner; J. A. Cutroni; J. C. Weaver; D. E. Morse et al. : High-resolution AFM imaging of intact and fractured trabecular bone; Bone. 2004. DOI : 10.1016/j.bone.2004.02.024.
T. Gutsmann; G. E. Fantner; J. H. Kindt; M. Venturoni; S. Danielsen et al. : Force spectroscopy of collagen fibers to investigate their mechanical properties and structural organization; Biophysical Journal. 2004. DOI : 10.1016/S0006-3495(04)74366-0.
G. E. Fantner; H. Birkedal; J. H. Kindt; T. Hassenkam; J. C. Weaver et al. : Influence of the degradation of the organic matrix on the microscopic fracture behavior of trabecular bone; Bone. 2004. DOI : 10.1016/j.bone.2004.05.027.

2003

M. Venturoni; T. Gutsmann; G. E. Fantner; J. H. Kindt; P. K. Hansma : Investigations into the polymorphism of rat tail tendon fibrils using atomic force microscopy; Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 2003. DOI : 10.1016/s0006-291x(03)00390-5.
T. Gutsmann; G. E. Fantner; M. Venturoni; A. Ekani-Nkodo; J. B. Thompson et al. : Evidence that collagen fibrils in tendons are inhomogeneously structured in a tubelike manner; Biophysical Journal. 2003. DOI : 10.1016/S0006-3495(03)75064-4.

Conference Papers

2017

A. P. Nievergelt; S. H. Andany; J. D. Adams; M. T. Hannebelle; G. E. Fantner : Components for high-speed atomic force microscopy optimized for low phase-lag. 2017. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics (AIM), Munich, Germany, 3-7 July 2017. p. 731-736. DOI : 10.1109/AIM.2017.8014104.
C. M. Kammer; A. P. Nievergelt; G. Fantner; A. Karimi : Data-Driven Controller Design for Atomic-Force Microscopy. 2017. 20th World Congress of IFAC, Toulouse, France, August 27-30, 2017.

2014

Z. Tasdemir; D. Sacchetto; O. Peric; G. Fantner; Y. Leblebici et al. : Top-Down Fabrication of Silicon Nanowires in Ultra-deep Trenches. 2014. 40th International Conference on Micro and Nano Engineering, Lausanne, Switzerland, September 22-26, 2014.

2013

B. Schlecker; M. Ortmanns; J. Anders; G. Fantner : Novel electronics for high-speed FM-AFM in life science applications. 2013. 2013 European Conference on Circuit Theory and Design (ECCTD), Dresden, Germany, 8-12 09 2013. p. 1-4. DOI : 10.1109/ECCTD.2013.6662241.
B. Schlecker; M. Ortmanns; J. Anders; G. Fantner : PLL-based high-speed demodulation of FM signals for real-time AFM applications. 2013. 2013 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS), Beijing, China, 19-23 05 2013. p. 197-200. DOI : 10.1109/ISCAS.2013.6571816.
J. D. Adams; C. H. Schwalb; M. Winhold; M. Dukic; M. Huth et al. : Analysis of local deformation effects in resistive strain sensing of a submicron-thickness AFM cantilever. 2013. SPIE Conference on Smart Sensors, Actuators, and MEMS VI, Grenoble, France, April 24-26, 2013. DOI : 10.1117/12.2018034.

2012

D. Burns; G. Fantner; K. Youcef-Toumi : Automatic lateral resonance identification from cantilever deflection information in high speed atomic force microscopy. 2012. p. 3240-3246.

2007

G. E. Fantner; T. Ivanov; K. Ivanova; D. Gray; I. W. Rangelow et al. : Imaging Cellular and Viral Materials with Small Cantilevers Developed for High Speed Atomic Force Microscopy. 2007. Nanoscale Phenomena in Functional Materials by Scanning Probe Microscopy, Boston, MA; United States, 26-30 November 2007. DOI : 10.1557/PROC-1025-B03-03.

2006

G. Schitter; K. J. Astrom; B. DeMartini; G. E. Fantner; K. Turner et al. : Design and modeling of a high-speed scanner for atomic force microscopy. 2006. p. 502-507.

2005

G. Schitter; G. E. Fantner; J. H. Kindt; P. J. Thurner; P. K. Hansma : On recent developments for high-speed atomic force microscopy. 2005. p. 261-264.

2004

P. Hansma; J. Cutroni; G. Fantner : Colloids and bone. 2004. p. 418-COLL.

Reviews

2012

M. Leitner; G. E. Fantner; E. J. Fantner; K. Ivanova; T. Ivanov et al. : Increased imaging speed and force sensitivity for bio-applications with small cantilevers using a conventional AFM setup; Micron. 2012. DOI : 10.1016/j.micron.2012.05.007.

Theses

2018

A. P. Nievergelt : Advances in High-Speed Atomic Force Microscopy. Lausanne, EPFL, 2018. DOI : 10.5075/epfl-thesis-8653.
O. Peric : Bacterial traps and advances in nanobiotechnology for atomic force microscopy. Lausanne, EPFL, 2018. DOI : 10.5075/epfl-thesis-8003.

2016

P. D. Odermatt : Mechanical and Functional Study of Cell Physiology at the Nanoscale. Lausanne, EPFL, 2016. DOI : 10.5075/epfl-thesis-6999.
M. Đukić Pjanić : Advances in self-sensing techniques for atomic force microscopy. Lausanne, EPFL, 2016. DOI : 10.5075/epfl-thesis-6992.

Patents

2011

D. J. Burns; G. E. Fantner; K. Youcef-Toumi ; Method for scanning sample involves providing compensatory signal to actuator after generating compensatory signal on first component of data signal generated by sensor. US2011289635 . 2011.

2008

P. K. Hansma; D. J. Rehn; G. Fantner; P. J. Turner ; Bone assessing method for fracture risk, involves inserting test probe through periosteum and soft tissue on bone of subject so that test probe contacts bone, where probe is inserted into bone to create microscopic fractures. WO2006121737 . 2008.
P. K. Hansma; G. Fantner; J. H. Kindt ; Scanning probe microscope for imaging material e.g. metal, has strain gauge coupled to opposed actuators arranged in opposed push or push-pull configuration to measure differential motion of opposed actuators. 2008.

2007

P. Hansma; D. Rehn; G. Fantner; P. Turner ; Bone fracture risk assessing method involves inserting test probe through periosteum and soft tissue on bone, so as to evaluate resistance of bone to microscopic fracture. EP1885272 . 2007.

2006

P. K. Hansma; G. Fantner; J. H. Kindt ; Scanning probe microscope e.g. atomic force microscope, has two actuators arranged in opposed push-pull configuration, and support constrains motion of one of two actuators in one axis to permit translation along another axis. EP1829050 . 2006.